Modafinil review | Everything that you need to know in 2020

Modafinil is the drug most commonly used to treat sleep disorders, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea. In the United States, modafinil is recognized by the FDA as a drug for the treatment of chronic fatigue, obstructive sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness (narcolepsy), and sleep disturbances in movement. In the United States, modafinil can be legally obtained with a doctor’s prescription. 

The abuse of Modafinil is very widespread, as in addition to sleep disorders, drugs are also said to improve concentration, mood and many other functions of the human body. Misuse of this drug is very dangerous as modafinil can leave a bunch of unpleasant consequences such as headaches and axiosis and of course many other consequences. In legal use, however, modafinil is considered a fairly safe drug because it has few side effects and little potential for addiction to it. However, there are a number of safety concerns treated with Modafinil in the long term.

What is Modafinil used for

Modafinil, also called Provigil, is a drug used to relieve sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or sleep disturbance. Modafinil works by altering neurotransmitters in the brain. Modafinil, of course, also has other positive and side effects on the body that you can find in this article.

Mechanism of action

Modafinil has rather complex mechanisms of action, but has been shown to affect serotonin, dopamine, orexin, norepinephrine, histamine, GABA, and glutamate.

Studies have shown that modafinil slightly increases serotonin in certain areas of the brain more specifically in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsal raphe nucleus. According to other studies, modafinil inhibits the dopamine transporter (DAT), which increases the level of dopamine in the body. 

Some animal studies have further shown that Modafinil partially activates the dopamine D2 receptor and can promote alertness by promoting dopamine release in the brain. Modafinil is also thought to have an effect on orexin, resulting in increased alertness. Some studies have shown that modafinil may also act with the norepinephrine transporter (NET), which may lead to a regional increase in norepinephrine in the human body. Modafinil can also increase the release of histamine in the human body by altering the function of neurons, thereby increasing alertness. Modafinil is also thought to increase the secretion of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, according to some studies.

is Modafinil legal

Modafinil is not legal in the US in principle, but it can be brought to the US by a registered DEA importer and a person who gets it on prescription. In China, modafinil can only be prescribed by appropriate doctors and is also generally banned. In Australia, modafinil is also only allowed on prescription. In general, modafinil is banned for general use in most countries of the world.

Modafinil benefits

The advantages of modafinil are:

  • elimination of many neurological disorders
  • reducing mood disorders in sleep deprivation
  • improved memory
  • decreased appetite
  • reduction of substance dependence
  • treatment of multiple sclerosis
  • treatment of ADHD
  • relieving depression
  • alleviation of mental disorders

Elimination of neurological and sleep disorders

Modafinil has so far been shown to be successful in eliminating dopaminergic interactions, adrenergic interactions, and orexinergic interactions. Studies in rats have shown that modafinil increases extracellular dopamine levels in nuclear vessels , prefrontal cortex , and canine caudate nucleus , thereby eliminating the neurological disorders listed above. Modafinil has also been shown to eliminate mood and sleep disorders due to lack of sleep, according to some studies [33] [1]. Modafinil has the greatest advantage over other raw materials that alleviate sleep deprivation because modafinil does not recur hypersomnia. Recurrent hypersomnia is a phenomenon where supplements successfully alleviate sleep deprivation, but over time the user becomes significantly more tired than before. No obstruction was detected with modafinil. Studies have also shown that 300 mg of modafinil can replace 10-12 hours of sleep.

Better memory and less appetite

Studies have shown that 100 mg or 200 mg improves working memory, reaction time and spatial planning. In addition to the effects listed above, some studies report even greater motivation to work and more enjoyment at work. Studies examining the effect of modafinil on appetite have shown that modafinil reduces appetite by as much as 16%.

Addiction reduction and treatment of multiple sclerosis and ADHD

Studies have shown that modafinil reduces dependence on alcohol, methamphetamine and gambling in addicted people. Modafinil may also reduce the impulsiveness of addicts.

However, studies examining the effect of modafinil on multiple sclerosis have found that 250 mg of modafinil manages to improve memory recall.

Some doctors prescribe modafinil to treat ADHD, even though the evidence for its action is not strong enough to meet FDA standards. A study of 927 participants found significantly improved symptoms after taking methamphetamine compared with placebo. The widespread use of methamphetamine for the treatment of ADHD is halted by concerns about its long-term safety.

Relieving depression and mental disorders

A study performed on 587 people and two studies performed on 552 people showed that modafinil alone and in combination with other drugs relieves drowsiness and fatigue in people with bipolar and major depression.

Judging by four small studies conducted in 83 schizophrenic patients, modafinil relieves fatigue, improves cognitive function, or both. An animal study has shown that modafinil acts on certain populations of dopamine neurons in the brain, making it potentially useful for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Another study conducted in 36 patients, however, showed that modafinil reduces daytime sleepiness, making modafinil useful in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The effect of modafinil on the treatment of schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease is not entirely plausible, despite promising research results.

Modafinil vs Adderall

Modafiniland Adderall are two central nervous system (CNS) stimulants that have quite similar effects. Both drugs are used to treat sleep disorders, but they are still slightly different.

While modafinil is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and work-related sleep disorders, Adderall is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD. Adderall is basically a combination of levoamphetamine, amphetamine salts and dextroamphetamine, which increases the amount of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.

A comparison of the two drugs can be found in the table below.

 

Drug:

Modafinil

Adderall

Prescribed for:

Narcolepsy, shift Work disorder (SWD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy

Drug classification:

Stimulant

Stimulant

Side effects:

Rash, decrease in appetite, hallucinations, headache, anxiety, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, dizziness, fear, nausea, sweating, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nervousness, twitching, allergic reactions, stomach ache, seizures, dry mouth, vomiting

Rash, decrease in appetite, hallucinations, headache, anxiety, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, dizziness, fear, nausea, sweating, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nervousness, twitching, allergic reactions, stomach ache, seizures, dry mouth, vomiting

Dosage forms:

Oral tablet

Oral capsule with extended release, oral tablet

Average price:

$1130.76 per 30 tablets (200 mg)

$622 for a supply of 100, 5 mg tablets

Use in during pregnancy, pregnancy or lactation planning?

Modafinil is not a case for use during pregnancy.

Adderall is not a case for use during pregnancy.

 

Adderall and modafinil have quite similar side effects, but Addrall has a higher chance of addiction and can affect the way other drugs work. Talk to your doctor before using any of these medications.

Modafinil vs Armodafinil

Both Armodafinil and Modafinil are used to alleviate sleep disorders. Both are prescribed and have a low chance of possible addiction. Armodafinil is a very young drug, having been confirmed as the R-enantiomer of modafinil only in 2007. Both Modafinil and armodafinil have been swept by the FDA for the treatment of daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, movement disorders and obstructive sleep apnea. Modafinil and Armodafinil have quite similar effects, only some studies claim that the effects of armodafinil are stronger. The side effects of both drugs are similar, except that not all of them have been discovered, especially with Armodafinil and modafinil.

More about both drugs can be found in the table below.

 

Drug:

Modafinil

Armodafinil

Prescribed for:

Narcolepsy, shift Work disorder (SWD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Narcolepsy, shift Work disorder (SWD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Drug classification:

Stimulant

Stimulant

Side effects:

Rash, decrease in appetite, hallucinations, headache, anxiety, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, dizziness, fear, nausea, sweating, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nervousness, twitching, allergic reactions, stomach ache, seizures, dry mouth, vomiting

Headache, decreased appetite, nausea,

nervousness, anxiety, dizziness, diarrhea, indigestion, insomnia,

dry mouth,

Dosage forms:

Oral tablet

Oral tablet

Average price:

$1130.76 per 30 tablets (200 mg)

$501.56 per 100mg

Use in during pregnancy, pregnancy or lactation planning?

Modafinil is not a case for use during pregnancy.

Armodafinil is not a case for use during pregnancy.

Armodafinil and modafinil are very similar raw materials with very similar effects and side effects before consuming these foods consult a doctor.

Modafinil vs Ritalin

Modafinil and ritanil are both used to increase productivity. While modafinil is recognized for the treatment of narcolepsy, shift work disorder (SWD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), ritalin is recognized for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. The side effects of both drugs are very similar, except that the side effects of ritalin can also be felt on the nerves and muscles. Both medicines are prescribed by a doctor and are dangerous to use during pregnancy.

A more detailed comparison of the two drugs can be found in the table below.

 

Drug:

Modafinil

Ritalin

Prescribed for:

Narcolepsy, shift Work disorder (SWD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy

Drug classification:

Stimulant

Stimulant

Side effects:

Rash, decrease in appetite, hallucinations, headache, anxiety, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, dizziness, fear, nausea, sweating, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nervousness, twitching, allergic reactions, stomach ache, seizures, dry mouth, vomiting

Loss of appetite or nausea, muscle twitches or seizures, unusual mood changes, difficult breathing or visual disturbances, stomach pain, unusual aggression or paranoia, muscle twitches or seizures, chest pain or dizziness, difficult breathing or visual disturbances, painful erections

Dosage forms:

Oral tablet

Oral capsule with extended release, oral tablet, oral tablet with extended release, transdermal patch, oral solution

Average price:

$1130.76 per 30 tablets (200 mg)

$97.08 per 10 mg

Use in during pregnancy, pregnancy or lactation planning?

Modafinil is not a case for use during pregnancy.

Ritanil is not a case for use during pregnancy.

Modafinil on ritalin are therefore quite similar drugs, differing in some effects. Talk to your doctor before using any of the medications.

Modafinil half-life

The effects of modafinil in general compared to the effects of other drugs are long-lasting. Due to its long-lasting effects, the half-life of modafinil in the human body is between 12 and 15 hours.

Modafinil dosage

Modafinil is taken once a day (obviously in the morning) with or without food in the case of obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy. In the case of obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy, patients take 200 mg of modafinil per day. In the case of Shift Work Sleep Disorder, patients take 200 mg of modafinil in a single dose one hour before the patient’s work shift. Caution is advised when taking modafinil.

How long does Modafinil last

One of the biggest advantages of modafinil is its long-lasting effect. Modafinil works in the human body for 12 to 15 hours, which means that one dose can easily replace a sleepless night. Moidafinil is very popular precisely because of its long-term action, despite the good results of research related to modafinil, we recommend consulting a doctor before using it.

Is Modafinil a narcotic

Modafinil is a low-dose, low-risk drug. Modafinil is thus considered a generally long-term safe drug. Concerns arise about side effects from very long-term use because these aren’t thoroughly researched and documented. The question of the effect of Modafinil on the growth and development of the body is also open, if we start taking Modafinil in adolescence or even earlier.

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